PostScript PS is a page description language in the electronic publishing and desktop publishing business. At that time Gaffney and John Warnock were developing an interpreter for a large three-dimensional graphics database of New York Harbor.
Concurrently, researchers at Xerox PARC had developed the first laser printer and had recognized the need for a standard means of defining page images. In Bob Sproull and William Newman developed the Press format, which was eventually used in the Xerox Star system to drive laser printers. But Press, a data format rather than a language, lacked flexibility, and PARC mounted the Interpress effort to create a successor.
This work later evolved and expanded into the Interpress language. At about this time they were visited by Steve Jobswho urged them to adapt PostScript to be used as the language for driving laser printers. The combination of technical merits and widespread availability made PostScript a language of choice for graphical output for printing applications.
For a time an interpreter sometimes referred to as a RIP for Raster Image Processor for the PostScript language was a common component of laser printers, into the s. However, the cost of implementation was high; computers output raw PS code that would be interpreted by the printer into a raster image at the printer's natural resolution.
This required high performance microprocessors and ample memory. When the laser printer engines themselves cost over a thousand dollars the added cost of PS was marginal.
But as printer mechanisms fell in price, the cost of implementing PS became too great a fraction of overall printer cost; in addition, with desktop computers becoming more powerful, it no longer made sense to offload the rasterisation work onto the resource-constrained printer. Byfew lower-end printer models came with support for PostScript, largely due to growing competition from much cheaper non-PostScript ink jet printers, and new software-based methods to render PostScript images on the computer, making them suitable for any printer; PDFa descendant of PostScript, provides one such method, and has largely replaced PostScript as de facto standard for electronic document distribution.
On high-end printers, PostScript processors remain common, and their use can dramatically reduce the CPU work involved in printing documents, transferring the work of rendering PostScript images from the computer to the printer. The first version of the PostScript language was released to the market in The suffix Level 1 was added when Level 2 was introduced.
PostScript Level 2 was introduced inand included several improvements: improved speed and reliability, support for in-RIP separations, image decompression for example, JPEG images could be rendered by a PostScript programsupport for composite fontsand the form mechanism for caching reusable content. PostScript 3 was significant in terms of replacing the existing proprietary color electronic prepress systems, then widely used for magazine production, through the introduction of smooth shading operations with up to shades of grey rather than the available in PostScript Level 2as well as DeviceN, a color space that allowed the addition of additional ink colors called spot colors into composite color pages.
There were a number of technologies for this task, but most shared the property that the glyphs were physically difficult to change, as they were stamped onto typewriter keys, bands of metal, or optical plates. This changed to some degree with the increasing popularity of dot matrix printers. The characters on these systems were drawn as a series of dots, as defined by a font table inside the printer.
As they grew in sophistication, dot matrix printers started including several built-in fonts from which the user could select, and some models allowed users to upload their own custom glyphs into the printer. Dot matrix printers also introduced the ability to print raster graphics. The graphics were interpreted by the computer and sent as a series of dots to the printer using a series of escape sequences.
These printer control languages varied from printer to printer, requiring program authors to create numerous drivers. Vector graphics printing was left to special-purpose devices, called plotters. Almost all plotters shared a common command language, HPGLbut were of limited use for anything other than printing graphics.
In addition, they tended to be expensive and slow, and thus rare. Laser printers combine the best features of both printers and plotters. Like plotters, laser printers offer high quality line art, and like dot-matrix printers, they are able to generate pages of text and raster graphics. Unlike either printers or plotters, a laser printer makes it possible to position high-quality graphics and text on the same page.
PostScript made it possible to exploit fully these characteristics by offering a single control language that could be used on any brand of printer. PostScript went beyond the typical printer control language and was a complete programming language of its own. Many applications can transform a document into a PostScript program: the execution of which results in the original document.
This program can be sent to an interpreter in a printer, which results in a printed document, or to one inside another application, which will display the document on-screen. Since the document-program is the same regardless of its destination, it is called device-independent.The "official" language for Moodle is actually the Australian English hey mate! The default language on a new installation of Moodle, unless you change it, will be this version of English, denoted by the language code "en".
These are the language codes for each language. There is a standard for these, see ISO language code list. Typically these will include variant spellings and other preferred local terminology and phrasing.
Other than some core languages maintained by Moodle HQ, most languages are maintained by volunteer maintainers. Note you can only choose to set as default a Language pack that is already installed.
If the language you want is not on the list, you will need to install the language pack first. See Language packs. When you change to a new site default language, this does not update the language setting in the profile for already existing users. It only sets a new default for new user accounts you create from now on. Actually, the one and only place where Moodle requires some locales to be installed on the machine is when handling date translation according to this information.
See Language customisation for details. See the section 'Finding the component and string identifier' in Language customisation. Unfortunately customising language strings is not supported in MoodleCloud.
The same string cache is used for for all sites and is read-only. This could be caused by the caching on the server. Language strings are cached into server memory for performance reasons and when you save changes, they may not be immediately picked up. First, refresh your own browser cache to refresh the pages from the site.
Then if the strings are still not there, an administrator can purge the cache of the server. Labels, web pages, activity descriptions etc. Another option is to create activities in different languages and restrict access to them using the Restriction by language plugin.
Linguistic Society of America
See the discussion Multiple Languages for further options. Yes, but be careful. You can make use of the customise language process. Edit the file with a search and replace with whole word and case sensitive turned on, change Teacher to Instructor and Teachers to Instructors, do the same for teacher and teachers.
Now copy that saved copy of the moodle.However, the interpreter is configurable in ways that can restrict it to various subsets of this language.
The base interpreter may be configured see the documentation on building Ghostscript for how to configure it by adding any combination of the following:. This facility can be disabled by deselecting the pdf feature when Ghostscript is built. Ghostscript currently implements the majority of non-interactive features defined in the PDF reference.
Ghostscript also includes a number of additional operators defined below that are not in the PostScript language defined by Adobe. The implementation limits show here correspond to those in Tables B. Where Ghostscript's limits are different from those of Adobe's implementations as shown in the Third EditionAdobe's limits are also shown.
In bit builds packed array elements occupy either 2 bytes or 12 bytes. The average element size is probably about 7 bytes. Names occupy 16 bytes plus the space for the string.
In bit builds packed array elements occupy either 2 bytes or 16 bytes. The average element size is probably about 9 bytes. Names occupy 24 bytes plus the space for the string. The garbage collector doesn't reclaim portions of arrays obtained with getintervalrather it collects entire arrays. If used incorrectly, they can have unexpected side effects and result in undefined behavior.
The latter will make the custom operators available, but leave the file access controls active. Ghostscript provides a set of operators for implementing the transparency and compositing facilities of PDF 1. These are defined only if the transpar option was selected when Ghostscript was built. Previously in 9. This model has been changed as of 9. What follows is a subset of all the custom operators related to transparency, but covers the most useful, most common requirements.
Pushing the compositor device must be done before any other marking operations are made on the current page, and must be done per page. Popping the compositor should be done after the last marking operation of the page, and before the call to showpage. Any marking operations made after the compositor is popped will bypass the transparent imaging model, and may produce unexpected output.
At present the depth parameter should always be zero Subject To Change. If the mode name is not recognized, causes a rangecheck error. The initial opacity alpha value is 1. Note, it is strongly suggested that this method not be used as it currently may give inconsistent results when mixed with methods that set stroke and fill alpha values. The initial shape alpha value is 1.
The initial stroke alpha value is 1. The initial fill alpha value is 1. The initial value of the AIS flag is false.
The initial value of the text knockout flag is true.Children acquire language quickly, easily, and without effort or formal teaching. It happens automatically, whether their parents try to teach them or not. Although parents or other caretakers don't teach their children to speak, they do perform an important role by talking to their children. Children who are never spoken to will not acquire language. And the language must be used for interaction with the child; for example, a child who regularly hears language on the TV or radio but nowhere else will not learn to talk.
Children acquire language through interaction - not only with their parents and other adults, but also with other children. All normal children who grow up in normal households, surrounded by conversation, will acquire the language that is being used around them. And it is just as easy for a child to acquire two or more languages at the same time, as long as they are regularly interacting with speakers of those languages.
The special way in which many adults speak to small children also helps them to acquire language. Studies show that the 'baby talk' that adults naturally use with infants and toddlers tends to always be just a bit ahead of the level of the child's own language development, as though pulling the child along.
This 'baby talk' has simpler vocabulary and sentence structure than adult language, exaggerated intonation and sounds, and lots of repetition and questions. All of these features help the child to sort out the meanings, sounds, and sentence patterns of his or her language.
There is no one point at which a child learns to talk. By the time the child first utters a single meaningful word, he or she has already spent many months playing around with the sounds and intonations of language and connecting words with meanings.
Children acquire language in stages, and different children reach the various stages at different times. The order in which these stages are reached, however, is virtually always the same. The first sounds a baby makes are the sounds of crying. In this stage, the child is playing around with the sounds of speech and sorting out the sounds that are important for making words in his or her language from the sounds that aren't.
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I have googled until blue in the fingers. I have a Postscript font that I need to use on a website. I need to convert it to. None of the free conversion tools allow.
I have tried to install Font Forge with no success. Macports is awful and there are no longer Binaries being published.
Does anyone have another solution? For Mac and Windows you can use TransType. Mac only solution is FontXChange. FontForge seems to be a gross looking, but functional open source tool if you have more time than money. It has tools that can convert older font files to Opentype. First rename your post script files add.Adobe PostScript: The Language of Business (1991)
Learn more. Asked 8 years, 8 months ago. Active 3 years, 10 months ago. Viewed k times. Aeschylus Aeschylus 1 1 gold badge 6 6 silver badges 9 9 bronze badges.
Active Oldest Votes. Michael Anderson Woah, pretty useful stuff!
ForTransType seems to be the perfect solution. They even have a two-week demo. Just used TransType, conversion worked great. Go with TransType. Sneakyness Sneakyness 4, 3 3 gold badges 30 30 silver badges 39 39 bronze badges. David Wolever k 76 76 gold badges silver badges bronze badges. Indah Ibrahim Indah Ibrahim 51 4 4 bronze badges. You saved my day! JohnMorrison JohnMorrison 3 3 silver badges 4 4 bronze badges.An interesting postscript to the story is that the two people involved later got married.
Recent Examples on the Web Postscript Apologies in advance for the length of this postscript. Send us feedback. See more words from the same year Dictionary Entries near postscript post-runner postscapula postscore postscript postscriptum postscutellar postscutellum. Accessed 12 Oct. Keep scrolling for more More Definitions for postscript postscript. Please tell us where you read or heard it including the quote, if possible.
Test Your Vocabulary Forms of Government Quiz A gerontocracy is rule by: unwritten laws animals elders soothsayers Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words? Test Your Knowledge - and learn some interesting things along the way. Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free! Convening on 'Counsel' and 'Council' We drop the gavel. Ask the Editors 'Intensive purposes': An Eggcorn We're intent on clearing it up 'Nip it in the butt': An Eggcorn We're gonna stop you right there Literally How to use a word that literally drives some pe Is Singular 'They' a Better Choice?
Or something like that. A challenging quiz of changing words. Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words? Listen to the words and spell through all three l Login or Register.
Save Word. Definition of postscript. Examples of postscript in a Sentence In a postscript to her letter, she promised to write again soon. First Known Use of postscriptin the meaning defined above. Keep scrolling for more.
Learn More about postscript. Time Traveler for postscript The first known use of postscript was in See more words from the same year. Dictionary Entries near postscript post-runner postscapula postscore postscript postscriptum postscutellar postscutellum See More Nearby Entries. Statistics for postscript Look-up Popularity. More Definitions for postscript.
English Language Learners Definition of postscript. Kids Definition of postscript. Comments on postscript What made you want to look up postscript? Get Word of the Day daily email! Test Your Vocabulary.
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Mario Balotelli scored his eighth goal of the season in the. OM are nine points behind the league leaders in the Ligue 1 standings and we predict the star-studded team will go all-out attack against Saint-Etienne. The Acca Smacker supplies predictions for each outcome of a betting market, with the best prediction highlighted.
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